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Romania is located at the intersection of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea. It is the ninth largest country of the European Union by area, and the seventh largest by population. The Romanian language, like a number of others in southern Europe, is directly descended from Latin, although Romania is separated from other Latin language countries by Slav speakers.

After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began its transition from communism towards democracy and a capitalist market economy. In the past 15 years Romanian economy witnessed a rapid convergence process, which was sustained by inflows of foreign capitals, especially from 2005 onwards when capital account was liberalized. The country has considerable natural resources: oil, natural gas, coal, iron, copper and bauxite. Metal-working, petrochemicals and mechanical engineering are the main industries.



Membership: European Union (2007), NATO (2004), United Nations (1995), WTO (1995), OSCE (1973) and more
Area: 238,391 km2 (83rd in the world)
Climate: Temperate, 4 seasons
Capital and largest city: Bucharest
Administrative divisions: 41 counties
Time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington DC during Standard Time)
Official language: Romanian
Calling code: 40


Population: 21.5 million (59th in the world)
Ethnic groups (2011): 88.6% Romanians, 6.5% Hungarians, 3.2% Roma, 1.7% other minorities
Population distribution: 55.1% urban (small, medium and large towns), 49.9% rural
Population income: 48.9% low, 31.4% medium, 19.7% high
Distribution of family income - Gini index(2010): 33.3 (97th in the world)
Human Development Index: 0.781 (50th in the world)
Life expectancy at birth: 77.4 years


Political system: Semi-presidential Republic
President: Traian Basescu (2009 - present, 4th President of Romania)
Head of Government: Prime Minister Victor-Viorel Ponta (since 7 May 2012); Deputy Prime Minister Florin Georgescu (since 7 May 2012)
Legislative: Parliament: Senat (Upper house) and Chamber of Deputies ( Lower house)


Currency: Romanian Leu (RON)
Central Bank Governor: Mugur Isarescu
GDP (PPP, 2011): $267.151 billion
GDP composition by sector (2011): agriculture: 7.9%, industry: 32.9%, services: 59.2%
Budget (2011): revenues: $59.56 billion, expenditures: $67.38 billion
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) in 2012: -5.2% of GDP in Q1 2012
Public debt: 33.3% of GDP in Q1 2012
Inflation: 2.4% of GDP in Q1 2012


Investment (gross fixed 2011): 24.6% of GDP (47th in the world)
Industries: electric machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining
Exports (2011): $62.68 billion (54th in the world)
Exports commodities: machinery and equipment, metals and metal products, textiles and footwear, chemicals, agricultural products, minerals, fuels
Exports partners (2011): Germany 18.9%, Italy 13.1%, France 7.6%, Turkey 6.2%, Hungary 5.7%
Imports (2011): $73.12 billion (42nd in the world)
Imports commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels and minerals, metals, textile and products, agricultural products
Imports partners (2011): Germany 17.2%, Italy 11.4%, Hungary 8.8%, France 5.8%, China 4.6%, Kazakhstan 4.2%, Austria 4%



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Publicat la 1 ianuarie 2012